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Birds Flying Into Minneapolis' Glass-Walled US Bank Stadium Not a Good Look with Super Bowl LII Only Two Months Away


Excitement is building in the Upper Midwest as Super Bowl LII at Minneapolis’ US Bank Stadium is less than two months away and the hometown Vikings stand a legitimate shot of being the first hometown team to play in the game. The sustainability-related news surrounding the game is also positive — for the most part. 
Earlier this month, GreenSportsBlog featured the many good, green works of the Minnesota Super Bowl Host Committee. And US Bank Stadium is up for LEED certification. 
But there is one environmental aspect of Super Bowl LII and US Bank Stadium that draws concern: The problem of birds crashing into the largely glass exterior of the stadium that opened in 2016 and killing themselves; a problem that the Vikings and the Minnesota Sports Facilities Authority were made aware of during the stadium’s design phase. 
I have to admit, I never thought about the possibility of glass buildings being a Killing Field of sorts for birds. Yet, according to the American Bird Conservancy, up to 1 billion birds are killed in this manner in North America alone every year.
But I am not a bird expert. Nor am I an architect. Heck, I never, a la “Seinfeld’s” George Costanza, wanted to pretend to be an architect.
Nor am I a resident of Minnesota, nor am I a Minnesota Vikings fan.
That last sentence is relevant because, if I did live in the Land of 10,000 Lakes and/or chanted “Skol, Vikings!” after they scored a touchdown, I would likely have been well aware that birds fly into the massive glass exterior of US Bank Stadium. The Vikings home, which opened in 2016, will host Super Bowl LII on February 4, so this will likely be a topic of discussion as the game approaches. So I decided to talk to an expert.
US Bank Stadium Glass Paint

A number of birds have crashed into the largely glass exterior Minneapolis’ US Bank Stadium, host, in February 2018, of Super Bowl LII (Photo credit: Glass Paint)

Bruce Fowle (perhaps appropriately pronounced “FOUL”) is Founding Principal Emeritus at FXFOWLE, a leading New York City-based architecture firm. He was a founder and chairman of the New York chapter of Architects/Designers/Planners for Social Responsibility, an advocacy group for social justice and a sustainable built environment. Most importantly for this story, Fowle and the firm were engaged by New York City’s Javits Center to renovate its all-glass exterior — then the number one bird-killer in the city, according to New York City Audubon.
Bruce Fowle HiRes

Bruce Fowle, Founding Principal Emeritus at FXFOWLE (Photo credit: FXFOWLE)

According to Fowle, the “problem of glass buildings for birds really came to light about 25 or so years ago. A group of ‘birders’ (aka bird watchers) in Toronto and other cities created the Flight Light Awareness Program (FLAP) to track bird crashes. New York City Audubon started a similar initiative, Project Safe Flight. Like organizations sprang up in other cities, including Minneapolis.”
These groups began with a similar, rather grisly methodology: tracking bird deaths by going out in pre-dawn mornings, collecting carcasses before maintenance crews cleaned them up.
The problem, according to Fowle, is particularly acute during migratory periods. At night, birds are attracted to decorative lights — like those at the top of the Empire State Building — and fly towards them. During daylight hours, migrating birds see through clear glass and think they can fly into the dark spaces inside. Bushes and trees in an atrium are even more toxic: Birds will make a beeline to the greenery, often plowing into the glass at speeds up to 30 miles per hour. Reflective glass poses its own challenges for birds — confused by either seeing their own reflection, or perhaps thinking it is an adversary, or seeing sky and vegetation.
Fowle himself was unaware of the problem until his wife started working for New York City Audubon in the 1990s. In 2009, by complete coincidence, he became the lead architect when his firm was selected to renovate the exterior of the all-glass Javits Center, the largest convention facility in New York City. This gave him the opportunity to solve its bird mortality problem. After some digging, Fowle and company found a winning solution.
“Our big breakthrough came when we found a high-performing glass that was much less reflective than the original — eight percent reflection factor vs. 35 percent,” said Fowle. “By adding a ‘fritted dot pattern’ on the glass, which was needed to control solar gain and reduce energy consumption, we solved the fly-through problem. In the end we reduced bird-kill by 95 percent while making the building more transparent, more visually appealing, and more sustainable – a grand slam!”
Javits Exterior Upgraded Glass
Javits Interior Upgrade

Exterior (top) and interior views of New York City’s Javits Center after it was renovated to include high performing glass with a “fritted dot pattern” that helped reduce bird kills by 95 percent. (Photo credits: Chris Cooper)

The energy bit is important when one considers that glass is not a good energy saver. Per Fowle, “Glass is popular for large buildings from aesthetic, cost, and marketability perspectives, but it is not at all energy efficient.”
But I digress. Back to the birds.
With the help of New York City Audubon, FXFOWLE’s work with the Javits Center attracted the attention of Audubon Minnesota. The nonprofit, dedicated in large part to bird health, was worried about the plans for a mostly glass exterior of a new home for the Vikings. Their concerns were heightened due to the fact the facility would be built smack dab in the middle of the Mississippi River Flyway, the route for millions of migrating birds from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico and through to South America. Mercedes-Benz Stadium, the new LEED Platinum home of the Atlanta Falcons and Atlanta United, which also has a substantial glass exterior — although not as significant, percentage-wise, as US Bank Stadium — does not have a similar bird-kill problem. One likely reason is that it is not located on a flyway path.
Fowle recalls that he and his colleagues “recommended the glass used at Javits to the Audubon Minnesota, who then passed that on to the Vikings, the Minnesota Sports Facilities Authority (MSFA), and their architects. So all the key players were aware of the [bird-friendly] option during the planning phase, but apparently, because of alleged concerns about a relatively modest cost increase, they decided not to go the bird-friendly route.”
So US Bank Stadium was built with approximately 200,000 square feet of highly reflective glass, and, as predicted, birds started flying into it.
Sixty dead birds were observed during the fall 2016 migratory period, according to a February 2017 study compiled by the Audubon Chapter of Minneapolis — a separate group from the Audubon Minnesota — Minnesota Citizens for the Protection of Migratory Birds, and Friends of Roberts Bird Sanctuary. The report asserts that the number “significantly underestimates true mortality at the stadium complex, because it does not include birds removed by maintenance staff, security guards, and scavengers.” And the US Bank Stadium’s reported kill rate is approximately 30 percent greater than has been seen at any other building in the Minneapolis area during any migratory period.
The Minneapolis Star-Tribune and others publicized the story — which generated public protest. That led to a backlash —i.e. 60 dead birds aren’t that big a deal. Then, there was a strong volley to the backlash in the form of an October 2014 Star-Tribune OpEd co-authored by Jerry Bahls, then president (he retired this June) of the Audubon Chapter of Minneapolis and Lisa Venable, co-founder of Minnesota Citizens for the Protection of Migratory Birds.
Bird Advocates MPR

Bird advocates hold up poster-sized photos of dead birds at a February 2017 public meeting. They said that volunteers found those birds dead outside U.S. Bank Stadium in the early morning. (Photo credit: Minnesota Public Radio/Jerry Nelson)

Their story highlighted the strong public support in the Twin Cities and Minnesota more broadly for the use of bird-safe glass at US Bank Stadium (“The current glass choice simply does not reflect Minnesota values, as evidenced by the 95,000 people who signed their names to a bird-safe glass petition to the governor and the unanimous resolution passed by the Minneapolis City Council”) and the pivotal role migratory birds play in pollination and pest control (“One bird can eat 500 pests per day, reducing the need for toxic pesticides.”), before pivoting to the already-existing Javits solution.
Even though several cities throughout North America have adopted Bird-Safe Guidelines and some, such as San Francisco, have legislated compliance, the pleas for bird friendly glass at US Bank Stadium continued to fall on deaf ears.
This continued after the stadium opened last fall, when Audubon Minnesota’s proposal to retrofit of the glass to reduce the kill rate received a no go from the MSFA and the Vikings.
Calls and emails to Audubon Minnesota to get its take on the inaction at US Bank Stadium, and to see if there would be any organized, peaceful protests around Super Bowl LII, have drawn no response. The group is conducting another bird kill study, along with a team from the University of Oklahoma and the MSFA, with results due sometime in 2019.
Of course, Super Bowl LII will have come and gone well before the study is published.
The Audubon Chapter of Minneapolis will not protest, mainly for logistical reasons. “There will be a large ‘Exclusion Zone’ for security purposes around the perimeter of US Bank Stadium from January through the Super Bowl in early February,” said Bahls.
Jerry Bahls

Jerry Bahls, retired president of the Audubon Chapter of Minneapolis (Photo credit: Jerry Bahls)

Thus, it seems very unlikely that there will be any protests around the bird kill issue near US Bank Stadium in the weeks before Super Bowl LII. And, if that’s the case, the opportunity to gain national — and even international attention — on urban bird kills will have gone by the wayside.
While I certainly get the need for an Exclusion Zone, it says here that it is a shame that peaceful protests beyond the perimeter will not take place before Super Bowl LII. Such high profile actions would demonstrate to planners and architects of future stadium and arena projects — not to mention big, non-sports structures — that the public cares about the bird kill issue and that it should be a strong consideration during the design phase.


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  1. So glad to see coverage of this issue outside of bird and conservation circles! It’s a HUGE problem for office buildings as well, especially because fixes are more expensive than preventative design: we really need to focus on getting solutions implemented before construction.

  2. Hi Heidi: Thanks for your comment and for reading GreenSportsBlog. I think this is a fascinating issue and only wish that at least one organization fighting on behalf of the birds in the Minneapolis area would take some kind of action before the Super Bowl to bring this issue to a much bigger audience than GSB reaches.

  3. You should know that there are many people all over the country who knew about the plans for this stadium, sounded alerts about the acres of glass, protested the short-sighted refusal to remedy the plans ahead of time, and are well aware of the stupidity of forging ahead in spite. And now are using Minneapolis as a prime example of the lack of environmental responsibility. The city’s reputation is damaged and will remain besmirched as long as this travesty against nature remains.

    1. Hi Mikal: Thanks for the comment. To me, if MFSA and the Vikings decided to retrofit the stadium with bird-friendly glass, the value of the positive PR from having done so would likely offset the hard cost, especially with the reputational hit the team and city have taken.

  4. “only wish that at least one organization fighting on behalf of the birds in the Minneapolis area would take some kind of action before the Super Bowl to bring this issue to a much bigger audience than GSB reaches.”
    I’m honestly not sure how that could happen: this project has probably gotten more coverage than even the single night of ~400 birds at the Galveston bank and the birds that get trapped by the 9/11 memorial light beams — possibly both combined.
    Sports teams love data. I’m not sure why they can’t run some stats.
    My worst buildings in the Midwest kill, on average, 40, 40, 70, and ~130 birds per year. They’re a 2 story courthouse, 4 story library, 3 story library, and a 3 story office building, respectively. This stadium probably has quadruple their combined surface area. I would love to talk to stats guys about this.

    1. Thanks Heidi for the comment. I think that the Audubon organizations and other interested groups could stage peaceful protests beyond the exclusion zone in the week before the game. The media crush during that week, domestic and international, will be massive. So that could get significant attention IMHO.

  5. The Vikings made a large capital gift to someone. Probably has somerhing to do with lack of continued pressure on the team.

  6. Thanks for bringing this up! You are right— there needs to be more publicity about this problem!

    1. Thank you for the comment!

  7. Thank you for writing about this issue. I am curious to know just what the increased cost of building this the right way would have been, both as an actual dollar amount and as a percentage of the total cost of construction. Do you have these figures? What did the stadium cost to build? How much would using bird-safe glass have added to the cost? Thanks.

    1. Hi Mike: My pleasure and thanks for the comment! Those are great questions…According to the US Bank Stadium website, it cost $1.192 billion to build. MSFA said, in 2015, that it would have cost $60 million (5%) to add bird safe glass and would have delayed the opening by 6 months.

  8. The developers and architects were warned, repeatedly. Nevertheless, they persisted. There are things we can do to reduce collisions. If the conservation community is ignored, those things won’t happen.

    1. My 2¢: I wonder if other Minneapolis/Minnesota-based environmental and conservation non-profits that are NOT of the birding world could be engaged to add pressure. The Vikings and MSFA are trying to promote their greenness (US Bank is applying for LEED certification, Super Bowl LII has many sustainability initiatives) so that ignoring the bird kill issue would be seen greenwashing.

  9. There are remedies for this bird killing glass. Take the necessary measures to stop this now.

    1. Thanks for writing in, Marie. To me, there are two things that need to happen, at least as far as the sports world is concerned: 1. The Vikings and MSFA need to agree to do a bird-friendly upgrade on US Bank Stadium. That likely won’t happen until the Minnesota Audubon study is published in 2019. 2. All new stadium and arena projects with significant glass exteriors need to include bird-friendly glass in the planning/design phase.

  10. There are many reasons this issued is ignored but I’m an architect so I’ll blame the architects. Most of my career has been working in facilities management at two universities. Fortunately during my time on the SUNY College at Brockport campus I had the support from the College and SUNY to incorporate bird collision mitigation measures on three projects. I have presented this information at several conferences as have other groups. This information is available to architects to educate their clients as they do on so many aspects of design. Show your client pictures of dead birds and see what they think!!!

  11. Thanks for writing, Paul, and for your important work on this issue. What you suggest seems obvious to a layperson. Why WOULDN’T a high profile, highly public facility use bird friendly glass as a matter of course? What am I missing?

    1. I don’t know when the issue of bird collisions was raised on the US Bank Stadium but if this isn’t incorporated in an early phase of design the cost come off as added cost as opposed to an integral part of the design. Once any facility is complete the cost to mitigate bird collisions becomes a challenging discussion.

  12. It sounds to me as though this was raised in the design process (how early, I don’t know exactly) at least once if not more times. Then it was raised again during the construction and after US Bank Stadium was completed.

    1. I find it ridiculously frustrating that some of the perks that they upgraded to (way over budget already…) were more expensive than the bird glass fix. Giant screen? Made it bigger. Cushy seats? Made them plush-er. I can’t find the article I was looking for, but it’s something like $50 million over budget and there are a lot of luxuries that… really… seem… over the top. And locals clearly cared enough, as soon as the design was public, to raise the bird strike issue: it was very brought up very early. There are local monitoring groups who are incredibly active.

  13. To paraphrase Bill Clinton, I feel your pain, Heidi. I also love the way you frame the guns v. butter; perks v. birds issue. Will follow up on this story. At least the new Allianz Stadium, future home of Minnesota F.C., is going to have bird friendly glass. Needed a silver lining. Thanks for writing.

  14. […] mention: Minnesota Vikings and MSFA deciding not to upgrade the glass exterior of US Bank Stadium to reduce its bird kill […]

  15. […] is one environmental concern surrounding US Bank Stadium and thus, by extension, Super Bowl LII, that, to be fair to the Host Committee, predated its […]

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